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Saturday, July 27, 2013

Cooling, Refrigeration and The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

HTML'S MAGIC: Extreme Cold - Page 13 - 'The First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics As per Artistic Philosophy' .

Page 13 of 'Extreme Cold'
'A History and Monologue on Matter and Natural Systems
in Materials Science of/for Energy Systems within
any Macroscopic Scale'.

by GP duBerger

Absorption Refrigerating Apparatus
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This is a diagram of a continuous absorption refrigerating apparatus. It consists of the following essential parts:
G 'The generator', containing a concentrated solution of ammonia in water, from which the ammonia is driven by heat, just like distilling alcohol from mash, wine or water;

C 'The condenser', consisting of a coil of pipe in a tank through which cold water is circulated or a heat-sink grill/ fins are attached to allow for the ammonia gas to dissipate heat like the condenser coils behind a regular fridge or the exterior grills of air conditioners;

V 'The valve', for regulating the pressures in C and in B;

B, 'The refrigerator';

A, 'The absorber' containing a dilute solution of ammonia in which the vapor of ammonia is absorbed because it is very soluble in water;

P, 'The pump' for transferring the solution from the bottom of A to the top of G and the pump can be eliminated altogether, by placing C, B and A, higher than shown where gravity would replace the pump and the liquid that has absorbed back ammonia A, can go back to the generator G;

There is also a pipe connecting the bottom of G with the top of A, which makes this a Quantum mechanical device along with being a Classical mechanical device too and is no different than the Quantum Cooling experiment already shown. It is apparent that the absorber and generator take the place of the compressor and evaporator. The pipes connecting A and B are arranged to take the most concentrated solution from A to G and to return the solution from which the ammonia has been driven from G to A.

The generator B is placed over a furnace, by which heat is applied to drive off the ammonia. Also, arrangements are made for transferring heat from the hot liquid flowing from G to A, to the cold liquid flowing from A to G. As the ammonia is distilled from water in B the vapor driven off contains some moisture which causes an unavoidable loss of efficiency, but there is extreme efficiency in the absorber, which is more important since we don't want explosions or leaks of ammonia gas.
Today, we put a design for a Water separator, or would install a Receiver-Dryer of various types, which contain 'Desiccant' pellets to trap and absorb moisture at some point between G and A to increase efficiency.

Cooling With An Isolated System

Fair Use
Anyone that shakes a small can of butane will find that the liquid will get slightly colder, not hotter, which seems to contradict everything J.P. Joules and Count Rumford had to say about motion producing heat, but for us this produces the finest example of the Cooling Effect through the thermodynamic concept of Work in an Isolated system that is available to any household via your neighborhood supermarket.

This also firmly establishes that hot and cold are completely transitive, and can be transitive into Work too instead of just energy, and this depends entirely on the systems involved. Indeed, "refrigeration" is a lot more than any chemist or physicist will say it is.

It is only Pressurization and a liquified gas that is required to change everything and wherever there is movement there is even more pressure which reacts as evaporation and condensation inside the can and creates cooling depending on the volume of either the liquid or the gas in any type of system.

Here, we open the door to things involving matter and energy which appear to do the opposite of what certain demonstrations show/prove. (Dark matter/energy enthusiasts beware, since gravity is no exception to this new rule)
For thermodynamics, we just need to remember that there is no such thing as Hot and Cold; They are only different degrees of heat and nowhere is the absence of heat. In a butane can we succeed the same by "boiling" the liquid butane by merely moving it.

Remember, in Thermodynamics there are three systems; Isolated systems, Closed systems and Open systems and they are all very important, including any properties of matter that those systems contain.

There are other more exotic systems, but unless you want to be a specialist in Systems Theory, these three will cover most everything or will give you a solid foundation, especially if you mix them up and make them work together.
Refrigeration is not possible here, but only cooling because it is not a closed or open system yet, which I will explain more about later.

What we "feel" is the evaporation/condensation process going on simultaneously in your hand in an Isolated system that because of pressure contains a material that is simultaneously in liquid and in gas form. The shaking of the can (Work) is all that is required for the First Law of Thermodynamics.
Work is a measure of Movement caused or created (in this case molecular). Energy is a measure of Motion caused or created.

Therefore, in this system, Work can move heat by evaporating butane into gas by this type of relationship and leaves behind cold in the condensed liquid and since there is more liquid than gas, our heat transfer favors condensation and the great thing about Thermodynamics is that both hot or cold are additive quantum mechanically, as shown on the first page with the Stirling engine where ordinary room-temperature air can be added together and placed in a smaller space to make a device attached to the engine red hot or freeze the room air to liquid. The natural heat and cold that already exist in the universe only needs to be moved around and compressed-decompressed by a system for another system.

If there was more gas volume than liquid volume the heat transfer would favor evaporation and would warm up, and your hand would pick up the heat that the shaking created. This is why systems are so important in thermodynamics, otherwise it's all just physics, not thermodynamics where everyone can examine their kinetic energy flowcharts, laws of motion, etc., etc., to everyone's heart's content and this would have to be done for each molecule we add, of which at one point there will appear many uncertainties, which also must be accounted for until the entire formula becomes nothing.

What's important here is the realization that heat can only be transferred through/with/by matter and Nature does this Naturally through matter's singular power of phase change. Heat cannot move by itself and even energy by itself; is useless without matter to carry it (Classical physics), or transmit it (Quantum physics) or give it any properties (Thermodynamics) everywhere in the universe.

One more important thing: It is that 'Work', as a Thermodynamic Principle, is what is being transferred and in this case, it is 'Created-Cool in matter', or 'Created Heat', either, which depend on the amount and ratio of liquid or gas in the can that reproduces the concept of Work and only that produces an Effect in this scenario since Hot is going to Cold.
It is like: It's not energy that creates hot or cold, but like friction it is Work that creates friction and the subsequent heat that it entails.

Of course, one requires energy to create that work that created the friction, but then there was work involved to get the energy, to do the work, to create the friction and find the heat and so on. It all depends on how big or small your universe is or has become where each incremental step, going towards their respective infinities, is significant no matter how large or how small.

Were Thermodynamics put its mind to Chaos theory, it would say that not just a butterfly could be responsible for a typhoon on the other side of the world, but so could a bacteria or a neutrino. It just does not end. Why these things don't happen is because of the Principle of Sufficiency. ("More good is happening in the universe than bad.")
This, of course, is not an explanation, but a metatruth which is something Thermodynamics always points to, or indicates into awareness, regarding anything, as easily as explaining how and why a thermometer Works.

For some, where this is difficult to grasp:
Think of matter as a magical substance that does a lot of things by itself under certain created conditions that are beyond the power of energy unless one wants to call the entire universe just 'energy', which would be as ridiculous as saying the entire universe is only composed of matter.

We see immediately, through an isolated system that Nature attaches both principles of Work, and Cold inseparably, yet this is denied by all scientific societies and committees, so, no Nobel Prizes here.

Since 'Work' can create both heat or cold via thermal equilibrium where energy alone cannot do both, but only create heat (and by that only by its motion or movement, depending on the system); why is Work not in the Laws of Thermodynamics that were created in the 19th century.

The refrigerator in your kitchen is a monument to a historic milestone that separates us from the stone age up to 19th century, who only knew how to create heat artificially. Now, we can create cold artificially too. It has always been new thermodynamic systems and their adoption that has changed humankind, not developed/discovered physical/chemical systems.

Yet, we fight over energy internationally like it was the answer to all our troubles, where we may as well be fighting over phantoms or ghosts because that is what energy is except that it is we who makes this phantom good or evil and real, which ironically follows the Zeroth Law of thermodynamics, where people and societies become equivalent to the neglect their own ideas and activities create.

Sitting or riding the wave: That is always the question
The stuff that requires the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which is protected like a god and not by what is supposed to be science, and we, via energy, base and standardize our science and lives on a secondary or collateral thing, where if we consider Matter and its requirements that also include Work, phase changes and thermal equilibrium (which is a system that deliverers twice the mechanical energy than any second law system, we find that all our troubles are solved because Matter systems in Thermodynamics have more to offer and can do more things.

Private enterprise depends on the creation of systems of enormous waste, where Free enterprise does the opposite and everything, including Waste heat is used. Free enterprise, serves the public good and any inventor of any new system for it is rewarded, or is assassinated. It depends who's in power at the time, but this power can only preside over closed systems.
Metaphor: There may be some scandalous orgy going on in Rome, but outside of Rome there are only crickets chirping. One chooses where one wants to be, and be influenced/bothered by.
The whole thing can be imagined as a system where we have waste, abuse and discord in one place and harmony in another, exactly like a system for heat or a system for refrigeration, where in either case heat is only moved from one place to another. It is where one want to be is all that is considered, but is not the entire case, but simply a part of a much larger system.

This has gone on to the point where since World War II, we now have nuclear reactors built on earthquake zones and with open arms, open to Tsunamis using a nuclear physics that cannot be shut down and after an explosion they use the nuclear energy from their remaining reactors to create cold with refrigeration-pipes instead of heat to prevent radioactive fallout from seeping and spilling out into the sea and this obsolete technology that is patented and then enforced by the corporate lawyer and the military where there are much better processes that have been developed for nuclear energy that are completely safe and secure. Minus war casualties, the modern-day Japanese have allowed a disaster worse that Nagasaki and Hiroshima put together if we count the dispersal of radioactive isotopes across the world's oceans and air from Fukushima Daiichi.

On the difference between the two capitalisms. Private Enterprise versus Free Enterprise.

"Capitalism, with all its merit, lacks the ethical integrity required to responsibly handle technologies as potentially deadly as nuclear power. When you understand the facts, you will agree. Unfortunately, the facts have been buried by the very powerful financial interests."

Read More at the Huffington Post

It is pure hypocrisy, where matters of "internal security" (whatever that is sometimes) can be alleviated by simply removing the technology that's unsafe because the Second Law of Thermodynamics has its limits unlike the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics.

It is as if we are still in World War II because this technology is only useful for the military and the so-called, "clean nuclear energy" (which it is not because it requires an enormous amount of fossil fuels to process into something useful) and their facilities are just a front because people are just presented the end product to make the Second Law of Thermodynamic system work that it's going to be put into, look like garden of roses.

The difference with these ancient types of reactors is that the pollution and waste was created before and after which is either hidden or never discussed (the deprecation of the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics).

Since any kind of movement or motion can create pressure and then it can be measured, —well that means that classical mechanics though the Thermal Equilibrium is not much different from quantum mechanics with its own matrices, where then the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics comes to the rescue to explain this elegantly.

Anyhow, this shows that Work itself should be included in the Laws of Thermodynamics because, as previously described, it also "cannot be created or destroyed, but 'MUST' be changed from one form to another" and it is because of Work that things happen because by simply doing one thing, one creates something else, depending on the matter, and its properties, the pressure and the different interacting systems involved.
The world is not as simple and mechanical as, "action and reaction".

So, in "effect", maybe matter or energy cannot enter or exit in or through an isolated system, but 'Work' can.

A brief digression: All these problems, all because Work does not exist in science or religion, or is not taken seriously. The only exception is in art and engineering.

2300 years ago, Heron of Alexandria built engines that produced Work. i.e. When a mercury/alcolhol thermometer's liquid rises and falls; that is Work, —NOT ENERGY. This technology based on any sort of self-seeking equilibrium could be developed to producing switches and finally computers that run themselves furthering The Principle of Sufficiency. This is the destiny of the Universe.

Now, today: In over 150 years after James Prescott Joules, not one single scientist, philosopher, intellectual, mathematician, theorist or brewer has ever written a paper or even a dissertation on Work and Isolated systems or Work in any type of thermodynamic systems. This shows that "science" may have an agenda somewhere and that scientists do and say what they are told in mass media and other forums. There appears to be a lack of curiosity and critical thinking and more conformity; which is not science.

Scientists and their universities all over the world have broken the trust that was extended to them and they should be forever condemned and never be trusted in perpetuity along with lawyers, organized religions (since they are heavily influenced by self-seeking powerful interests as one can see in the United States in the beginning of the third millennium) and politicians, etc., etc.

Universities should also all be deprecated or turned into condos and should be replaced with free universal Academies or trade schools for the not so bright or curious which, despite what encyclopedias say, these things existed long before universities and today, private and public research and development facilities already exist, which is sufficient edifice to legitimize any future science.

Universities, today, just pump out elitist garbage or destroy individuals and original thinking unless it serves the purposes of war, plunder or a conservative private enterprise with no imagination and it is there that these type of original thinkers with their peculiar "original" ideas and are welcomed.

So forget the "mysteries" of quantum mechanics for one second; This Principle of thermal equilibrium that already exists in Classical Mechanics is itself just as interesting, and potentially its own revolution of realization which can lead any time into the Quantum if one wants, and we don't need to spend billions of dollars to prove it either as a simple can of butane you can buy at any supermarket, to start off with, will do and from there we can build up new, remarkable and never before seen devices, machines and ideas to inspire everyone for centuries where technology and the human hand would be the message and not the medium of the intellectual be the message.

Any mathematician, scientist, religious leader or demagogue that does not discuss Work in any of their systems, and plainly reveal it, or where it goes and how it is being changed, is to be considered bullshit because the mother of all things, Thermodynamics, says it must be there.

Ludwig Boltzmann
Committed suicide in 1906
This, in my opinion, is what science was supposed to be, which is to take what philosophy considered nothing and turn it into something like the ancient Greeks artists and engineers did, and what we later did when the church said there were things that did not exist in Nature or they were impossible and this conservative nonsense is now coming back and supported by the edifice of science itself. His job is also to take speculative philosophy and turn it into Natural Philosophy and not spend billions of dollars of taxpayer's money looking for "god particles" or other invisible things to control Nature or make Nature unnatural in a closed system, especially when Nature has a lot more to offer than your nation, religion or brand can ever offer you, where there are not even Steps to consider where, even, any form of infinity can be considered in this scenario, so one is working for nothing if one's loyalties stray away from Nature. Nature before Nationality.
For more Judeo-Christian doom and gloom and Pepsi/Coca Cola phenomena, see article on a thing called 'Boltzmann Brains' which "is a hypothesized self-aware entity which arises due to random fluctuations out of a state of chaos (I don't make up crap like this), as if it was important to theorize creation and the end of the Universe and burning in hell because, of course that will continue after the end of the universe. According to these types; creation and change have a limit but damnation is self-sustaining and will last forever in both science and religion which is not nice to either Nature or God.

Religious fanatics who meddle in science and philosophy want their cake and eat it too, where they must decide "in the end" whether there will be an apocalypse and an end of the universe, or people will stew in hell or be in heavenly bliss forever, and which one is more important. You can't have both. No Universe = No Heaven and the little things in that universe in it to judge or look after where if a heaven all by itself, with nothing to do, or look at, with nothing even to talk about, would not be very blissful and also be a very lonely place. The following clip shows the end result of any heaven or utopia for any type of living being, whether the universe exits or not.

A blessed existence, whether there is a universe or not.
This clip, from popular media, makes us think of the philosophy of immortality and the politics of any everlasting heaven or hell,or any closed system.
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Time: 07:01 of your time.

Because, this is no different than some heat or refrigeration system:
The creation of nonsense like "heaven" automatically creates hell, and Lucifer himself can question himself justifiably why he exists his way since he's not supposed to exist in the first place, but already exists as something collateral. Somewhere, "the cart is put before the horse" and this philosophy we find all over in western science as well. The metaphysical for it to exist cannot be non-thermodynamic or selectively thermodynamic (preferring one law over another) and so it must be primarily transitive for it to function and transitive things cannot be split in half where one side is valued over another especially where the Zeroth Law involves the fact that existence itself is a form of heat (entropy).

One can say god is a form of heat as entropy, making god everlasting, but all heat is transitive if it moves anywhere and heat must move somewhere, or like any of the different entropies, be doing some form of Work.
If god is not Nature in what can be observed with a simple thermometer then all organized religion and science are worthless unless they conform or adapt to transitive and dynamic ideas.

What sparked the renaissance was observing Nature in a rational way and then we experimented on the phenomena we observed that the church said was impossible which led us to other discoveries and so on and this information was disseminated to everyone, and not by experimenting with conjectured abstract ideas and then disseminating them to others.
One thing I can say for Galileo, despite his faults: He was thorough, unlike others today who style themselves as like Galileo.

The Universe is queerer than we can suppose
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Time: 02:37 of your time.

This so-far non-existent thermodynamic Principle of "One form of work MUST be changed into another" is a shoo-in for a completely revamped Second Law and its elegance cannot be denied because this applies to the laws of physics, and quantum mechanics would have to find a way to fit in somewhere with this new Principle involving Work (because Work cannot be discussed as a particle - even mathematically) which will eventually come around in a few thousand years, when western civilization and its present beliefs and prejudices, have completely dissolved, including their corruption and the families that control the world can produce no more offspring and so die out (and all dynasties die out eventually), and a new civilization comes alive and establishes itself before their intellectuals come around and screw up everything else new that they will know by then, that doesn't exist today and that's why things take forever to happen.

The next time you hear a snot-nosed intellectual/anti-intellectual; tell him to shut up and you will be doing humankind a service because he would just be a mouthpiece for the state and there's nothing more tragic than a young person becoming a cowardly agent of the state, society or organized religion and never came up with anything original himself. These people read the bible or some scientific paper and think they know religion or science where they can't apply its philosophy anywhere.

I mean this kind corruption occurred in Ancient Greece, India and in China, who also had great minds, so why should not this kind of corruption of suppressing the truth not exist today where opinions always outweigh facts? We know many advanced things today, it is just that we don't apply any of them for a myriad of reasons, and I'm stupidly discussing the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics it as if it were some miracle (which makes it a worthy subject for Surrealism and Dadaism.

All one needs to do is put Nature before anything and Nature is everywhere, even in a dirty polluted city and not just in green things as "Nature" is always portrayed.

Cold = Heat Transfer
All that means is the heat is somewhere else and this heat is additive or subtractive depending on the volume or space its system occupies.

There are three different ways to achieve refrigeration. The following are Closed systems:

  •  1) place any liquid in a near vacuum or very low pressure environment that normally would not be able to sustain that liquid, where the liquid itself will boil at a lower temperature and the vapour will, regardless of the temperature of the boiled liquid, carry off more energy while evaporating and condense (or cool) the remaining liquid even further by itself. The trick here is to use a liquid that freezes below the temperature water freezes for our purposes, like Methyl Hydrate or Diethyl Ether. 
  • 2) Apply enough pressure to a vapour, and remove the heat created from the pressurization (the hot condenser coils and fins in an air conditioner) and introduce this liquid condensate into a low pressure environment (Evaporator). 
  • 3) With high pressure air, remove the heat and all moisture created and amassed from the pressurization and introduce this pressurized gas into a low pressure environment. This air will absorb heat from its surroundings while expanding, which will "feel" like and be cold. (Used in jet airplanes for cabin air conditioning among other things and places.)

RTSP Video
The Importance of Pressure as Demonstrated in Science Fiction
The fact that it is only artists, writers and fantasists are the only ones who recognize the importance of pressure in any type of system betrays science as being more an agenda-carrying edifice.
By the way, this is the only episode of Star Trek where the mathematician, the engineer and the artist all agree. That's the magic of Thermodynamics.

In any refrigeration system, as in a lot of other things, Pressure is the keystone Character that produces a desired or undesired Property and temperature, in any form of Matter regardless if there is any thermal equilibrium or not.

Put another way; In an Isolated system like a can of butane, at rest, contains only liquid butane which at room temperature would normally, in the open air, be a gas so that is a lot of heat energy stored up in a small can and this heat energy is called pressure and this pressure changed the property of the matter (the butane) inside the can. There is hardly any gaseous butane in it and there never will be just like the air in the bulb of Philo's Thermoscope never changes in amount, but only its pressure.

The heat that was created in the original butane by pressurizing it at the factory, is called Waste Heat by those who follow the Second Law of Thermodynamics and is dissipated into an open system via a simple radiator like the outside "condenser" coil of an air conditioner or is recovered with a closed system that would heat water and it would be used for other things.

I put condenser coil with quotes because a condenser coil is used during and after initial pressurization like an evaporator coil is used during and after initial evaporation. These things are nominal, not actual terms because these words say what they are for and not what they do because ordinarily condensation is Cold not Hot and Evaporation is Hot not Cold since the mist, steam or vapour is carrying away more energy (Faraday) and this shows another example in how the Second Law of Thermodynamics contradicts itself if the Zeroth law of Thermodynamics is not considered.

The Second Law of Thermodynamics teaches only energy systems and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics sees both matter and energy systems in concert where we see the problem immediately in simple things like condensation and evaporation and in Benjamin Franklin's Energy Potential system (They discuss current/amperes, never different potentials) , which is the reversed and turned upside-down with "modern-day" closed system electrical theory, where without Benjamin Franklin's theories, there would no van der Walls force to eventually discover that is the essential force for low-temperature physics that makes this science possible, nor would there be any tribology beyond Guillaume Amontons' 17th century research, nor any of the sciences involving Ion energy/matter.

The point here is this: The form of matter itself describes its energy where mist at room temperature has more energy than water at the same temperature and either can be used for cooling in only certain systems.

Modern science owes a lot to the Natural Philosophers of the past and in this way has abandoned nature prematurely.
What they teach and what actually is are two entirely different things and all the bad stuff is man-made (and only good for a closed-system society), which of course is the only stuff they push, where today an electrical engineer can't talk to low temperature physicist, unless they both know all the laws of thermodynamics.

The World's Largest Thermos Bottle for liquid hydrogen or liquid oxygen would have been found in the Saturn V Rocket Engine.
The little bit of gas left in the can would become liquid too, if the pressure was increased inside the can and with some gases, was also further cooled by some other means, i.e. Hydrogen, Helium, Carbon Monoxide, etc. because Condensation/Phase change only occurs with these particular gases below certain temperatures and at certain pressures simultaneously, which is why you don't want to shake around unnecessarily liquid Hydrogen, Helium, Carbon Monoxide etc. in a warm room, in an ordinary can because this is not like shaking around liquefied ammonia or butane.

These liquefied gases must be kept in a Dewar Flask and cannot be kept in an ordinary can like we do with liquid petroleum (butane). The layman or ordinary consumer, only, know the these types of bottles as conveniences to keep things like coffee warm, but in reality, these bottles have a very important scientific purpose for storing "noncondensable gases", where, without them this would be impossible. See, bookmark INTERMOLECULAR BONDING - VAN DER WAALS FORCES (google other sources of information too) and this has to do with Nuclear Chemistry, which is why I introduced it and is a very important subject for the layman to study, where even a polite knowledge brings enormous dividends to understand many different things at once and will make you wonder why matter doesn't exist in any course on Thermodynamics, but only energy systems are taught.

Here is where Thermodynamics meets chemistry and physics

"Some substances have the ability to attract and hang on to certain molecules by electrostatic attraction. Forget all the buzzwords like Van der Waals forces, London forces, etc..... they all come down to essentially the same thing as a charged comb attracting bit of paper, the only difference being the distance the attraction works over.[D] It is this electrostatic attraction and how good it is that makes the difference between an easily condensable gas and a gas that needs help to condense where more freezing brings those reluctant molecules and their accompanying electrons to react electrostatically with other molecules and then they can condense. It's all a question of the distance between the molecules and removing more heat helps that, where then the so called, "Van der Waals force" can overcome kinetic molecular motion (Heat).

Move anything around and one can create, or move, both heat or cold. It only depends on how your system is put together.

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Search engines are becoming equivalent to AM/FM radio, TV and printed mass media with the same type of nonsense and adolescent mentality. The dream of Tim "What's his name" with his "invention" of HTML and HTTP is being turned upside-down with these type of EMBEDED "search" pages that look like the real thing, ostensibly done because this format is simpler for mobile technology, but is made more inefficient with tracking and advertizing.
By shaking the can of butane (a gas that will liquefy under pressure without additional cooling), you are putting energy into the butane liquid via Work just like J.P. Joules Margarita-Maker, but Joules device works at ordinary atmospheric pressure therefore only heat is produced overall (798 ft·lbf/Btu / 4.29 J/cal) as there is some cooling too going on. Do this to a liquefied gas under pressure and the mechanical kinetic energy (shaking or stirring) goes directly towards producing condensation and evaporation (because the properties of matter and attending to them Always comes first) and this is why the can cools instead of heats up because the thermal equilibrium between the pressurized butane gas and the butane liquid is disturbed and must be rectified before Joule's or Rumford's demonstration means anything (which were water and air, which is not the same as liquid butane and gaseous butane), and as there is not enough kinetic energy left over to heat after the evaporation/condensation of the thermal equilibrium process, so the can does not heat up much.

The fact that it does heat it up a bit is why there is only a cooling effect and the refrigeration effect is impossible with an Isolated system. The Cold that is felt by your hand is the kinetically-made pressure on the evaporated butane gas from the shaking that was immediately condensed or made denser, and denser means the liquid taking up Work and all three effects, occurring "simultaneously" produce "cool", and again, the small amount of gas in the can always remains the same just like Philo's Thermoscope.

 Ice Skating
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It is only the pressure being changed by disturbing the can and this mechanical-to-heat energy is transferred to a condensation/evaporation cycle, — not radiation or convection. We also see how a water hammer, as I described earlier in my improved Rankine Cycle, could be used and configured to produce both heat or refrigeration in a closed system designed to produce these things, using the same principle if one obeys the so-called "useless" Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics.
Here, we see, like earlier, where I described how Cornelis Drebbel could change the Thermal Equilibrium of a substance by adding salt to ice, or when Davy melted ice by the motion of rubbing ice cubes together (research the physics behind Ice Skating); we see here described, pressure doing the same type of thing mechanically.

So long as there is movement in the liquid butane there will be a cooling effect produced which will be felt by your hand when it is in contact with the can and it is being moved or disturbed because it is just another source of energy (the heat from the hand) and work (the shaking) for producing evaporation and condensation with a previously condensed gas in an isolated system.

The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics!

James Burke - Balanced Anarchy
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Time: 04:50 of your time.

I also must say that there is no such thing as disorder in the Universe unless its created and this can only exist temporarily in a closed system and nowhere else and this has absolutely nothing to do with entropy either because there are many more things besides chaos that can produce entropy, and 'Order' is one of them (to create order in any system, one must pay with a created disorder elsewhere) because one cannot lock-up Nature indefinitely in any closed or isolated system. It all depends on how one looks at things and what time one allows for his "observations". Now with the quantum that is not very long and those time spans are also shrinking the more we dig in that part of the universe.

In quantum mechanics any disorder can suddenly be order while you're not looking it and most of our time is spent not looking at everything, just like in the example I used about Humpty Dumpty and Entropy and death where I say he is never the same Humpty Dumpty each new time you look at him and he is only thermodynamically the same, and as only a form on top of that.

It ends up that people like Aristotle and St. Augustine were both right and the modern rational scientists or the creationists of today are also both right.
It is only Thermodynamics that makes reality, real and eternal, which is good for either a Bible literalist when it comes to faith or a staunch atheistic scientist who codifies Laws of Nature and energy systems, where the physical universe itself must change and transform itself eternally and the difference between the creationist is that the physical universe will become more metaphysical and the scientist will say that it's physics will be eternally evolving down the road, but still remain a physical presence.

In the end, I only agree with Faraday who said, the universe is only composed of forces and fields.

This is why a lot of particle physics and cosmology is non-applicable because of the time frame discussed, being that their "discoveries" cannot be conserved and are unsustainable, and their conclusions with reality, regardless of what system their theories or experiments apply towards, the answer is always 'Nothing' or Infinity or their experiments will lead to these things since much particle physics now becomes ontology, instead, where particle decay after bombardment, removes itself from such a meaning and only manpower (work) can keep these things from decaying and guess where and how they are going to get this manpower, or who is going to pay for this in the future?

Which if this happens, will make for a very strange society by then, that would be beyond any hell or any dystopian agenda we can possibly conceive of today and both science and religion are headed down that road if we don't watch out.

The intelligent or imaginative person can see, by extrapolating through the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics, that there is a direct connection with present existence as per ontology, physics and slavery that applies to the future of humanity and humankind that makes stories like 'The Matrix' or '1984' seem like 'Alice in Wonderland' in comparison by this perversion of science or religion created by today's theoretical/particle physicists and their intellectuals, or by creationists.

Click on picture to see how heat-pipes are used to carry away heat to a heat sink in laptops, where space and battery energy consumption are at a premium which use the same principle of a can of butane, but not shaking it through solids and it is applied to a closed system (laptop). Heron of Alexandria's kind of thinking is still alive and well and this shows that "they" know perfectly well about "free energy" when it suits their purposes, which is to sell and move more products and here this involves cooling fragile miniature devices.

A mechanical version of this idea, is utilized by so-called "Chillers" in air conditioning systems, in buildings and complexes for example, and in many other things found everywhere if you "look under the hood" and with Heat Exchangers and in mechanisms involving Heat Transfer, which are all part of thermal engineering and deals with heat conduction, convection, thermal radiation, and transfer of energy by phase changes. The links provided are worth bookmarking for later study and contain many helpful illustrations.

The Vapour Compression Cycle is a mechanical process for refrigeration and heating that uses a chemical vapour "refrigerant" (which they actually are not) like the Brand name "Freon" or naturally derived Ammonia Vapour or Sulphur Dioxide Vapour instead of a dried gas. This is the refrigeration cycle for most home consumer products and strictly for marketing purposes, science with bogus things like "freon" are sold as "refrigerants" where it is actually the system or machine that makes them "refrigerants", where these things by themselves are just gases with certain properties and do many other things than what General Electric, DuPont or whatever tells you, especially when it contradicts the laws of Thermodynamics and this is where we find the consumer-grade version of the Second Law most useful to/for private enterprise groups and mindless consumers who think dolled-up 19th century technology is the latest thing.

This is the other form of "corporate speak" not discussed by Marshal McLuhan, which people are "carefully learning" its terminology and method as scientific truth. If one prefers, this can be also be called programming because nothing is true by itself, but what Nature says these things are and do under certain conditions. This escalates to god where religious authorities tell us what god and heaven and hell is.

So, according to Thermodynamics (or any dynamic); If there is "god", then that entity must have some exclusive properties which only make it "god" for a system called "humankind" (like Freon is to a standardized home refrigerator).
The problem, is that humankind is not exclusive and is in itself something real with many properties and many purposes that are not exclusive. In reality: God (like Freon) is used for an exclusive type of human (like refrigeration) system, which does not make it special or exclusive at all. The only special thing is making god, "almighty", or Freon a "refrigerant".

Ecology and Chemicals
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Time: 02:15 of your time.

Refrigerators and Home Air conditioners, Car Air conditioners including commercially intended walk-in refrigerators for restaurants, caterers, and convenience stores selling beer (Joules would be happy about that, but would hardly be concerned because, as an English brewer he made warm beer) and, of course, supermarket displays for meat and dairy products. For an excellent description on Car AC Systems See: You Tube's   Eric The Car Guy on 'AC System Basics' who explains better than I could that: "Pressure is basically one form of heat transfer".
i.e. Releasing the gas pressure of a pressured liquid removes heat from the liquid.

If we are mindful of Waste heat and if you think about this for a minute there are vast untapped advantages and new inventions that could be created with the imagination alone, if anyone examines this concept objectively, keeping mindful that the new logic of A = C is there to point one in the right direction. The best computer in existence is your brain and your own imagination, but you have to free your mind from artificially-created wants, saturation and indoctrination first where it is the modern computer that will need to be reprogrammed, refitted or rebuilt with this new logic structure that comes from the Zeroth Law.

These simple thermodynamic processes of evaporation, condensation, pressure, thermal equilibrium and vapor should be understood by everybody, at a glance, in elementary school before teaching anything else alongside reading and writing and physical education because they affect our lives everywhere, throughout our lives. Everything else one can learn for themselves, by themselves.

When you release the gas from the can of butane by way of a cigarette lighter refill, you will find that the remaining contents in the can is much colder than it was because the escaping gas from the can that went into the cigarette lighter took more than its fair share of energy that was originally in the can and the remaining liquid in the can that didn't make it out, was condensed .

The lighter on the other hand is colder because the lighter's tank is acting as an evaporator for the new butane gas, then when the pressures between the can and the lighter are equivalent, the liquid uses gravity to flow into the lighter to fill it up and you will find that this gas will not work until the condensed liquid has reached room temperature and the bit of gas, itself is too cold for it to ignite with oxygen, unless one would use a catalyst, device or complex system since the Van Der Walls force works both ways when it comes to chemistry or physics and their methods to create heat and/or reactions.

Therefore, so long as there is high pressure liquid to condense and evaporate simultaneously, the lighter and the can will be cold and will rob energy from Tom, Dick and Harry to do this. Once there is no more gas to evaporate and condense, the cigarette lighter warms up and becomes useful because the liquid can evaporate when a valve is opened because it is all at room temperature and the pressure outside the valve is at around sea level, which is much lower than the lighters pressure chamber.

This 'refrigeration effect' occurs in what was a closed system in the explanation and the isolated system that can only produce a 'cooling effect'.

Metatruth: Remember when we discussed Apollo 1? We see that if they had truly compensated in reverse for the differences in pressure between sea-level and space and do the same for temperature, the pure oxygen at 10 psi would not of ignited everything in the Apollo capsule, or the system would not of been so volatile.

I'm certain all Russian space-program accidents/disasters in the 60's and 70's were of the same problem involving Thermodynamics and matter's properties in them. Thermodynamics seems to be more of a mystery than quantum mechanics, where this should not be so.
The only reason Thermodynamics is not taught from the earliest times in anyone's education, where tragic/stupid things like these things would never occur, or be eliminated completely in everyday-technology overtime, is only for political and religious reasons.

Economic theory has become political and small where, regarding capitalism, we have private enterprise pitted against free enterprise, private education against free education or private medicine against public medicine, etc., etc. These two systems (wherever/whatever they may be) should always exist side by side and work together and not one against the other.
Beware of politicians and demagogues who divide because they will conquer, but the greatest conquest and riches for all, is in making friends in/out of your competitors and is not the business of politicians or religious/scientific leaders.

Only another civilization of the future can accomplish the following.

Theoretically, one can stir or shake a pressurized liquid in a isolated system at any speed and it will never get hot or freeze, but remain cool so long as it's pressurized contents are kept moving or shaking, which is a system or idea that has never been exploited, or if one used this principle while exposing the isolated system to Work, either produced mechanically, or not, while it is being agitated, it could be used as a standard to measure this kind of relationship of heat/work by using two simple, perfectly identical/calibrated, thermometers because we already can calculate the relationship with heat only, and one only needs to show the relative difference because, here, we are still in the magical realm of Systems. I'm sure that this idea will be practical someday and be used commercially and otherwise for all kinds of things anywhere, especially in space.

RTSP video
Of concern to modern-day theoretical/particle physicists and cosmologists.
Former Chief Inspector Charles Dreyfus demonstrates on how to rob banks and build a doomsday machine
From "The Pink Panther Strikes Again" (1976)

Imagine an Engine that cannot overheat or freeze-up regardless off how much power it's being made to put out or how idle it has been left because it is kept warm or cool by freely available left-over work moving around all over the place and no energy is expended to do this! The possibilities are endless and they go beyond any efficiency standards we have today which is much better than spending billions in junk energy-science especially when there is much we have to learn first before we start thinking and spending billions about things like god particles. It is up to you whether science serves man or serves intellectuals especially when you are paying for most of it with your taxes. If these guys are so smart then I'm sure with their PH.D's, intellect and high IQ's they can figure out how to rob a couple of banks to finance their projects.
The Pink Panther Strikes Again (1976)
[Referring to the beforemath of the first activation of the Doomsday device]

Dreyfus: What do you suppose they will call the crater, 
huh? The Dreyfus Ditch?
Dr. Fassbender: There shall be no crater.
Dreyfus: No crater? But I want a crater! I want wreckage, 
twisted metal. Something the world will not forget!
Dr. Fassbender: They won't forget today. 

Goodbye Always-Increasing Entropy and Waste heat regarding closed systems.
Forget the scientist and intellectual: All people should apply their intelligence and activities to the application of/in making all closed-system technology (that has given us a lot) act like, or work with open and isolated systems, where the difference becomes negligible.
(Always-increasing entropy is not the problem. It is a natural and necessary component of the universe. It is those that create and/or enable always-increasing entropy that are the problem.)

That's what humans are supposed to do and not turn Nature into a garbage dump of energy, incomplete combustion of chemicals, a disposal for specific forms of matter, the flaring of billions of dollars of Natural Gas, ideas, etc. and I hope they never burn substances imported from other planets here on Earth because this would only add to the toxicity levels that cannot be changed back like the toxic compounds that do exist today because there is a natural place for them here somewhere and can then be made non-toxic again, but none for elements from other planets especially regarding industry standards and economic practices that are universal here on Earth, in any time frame you care to look at because these systems do not promote sustainable life, which is a contradiction because you cannot separate the words or idea of 'Sustain' and 'Life' unless your system is psychotic and in that, the psychotic only "sees" one or the other, but never together because 'Life' itself is supposed to be self-sustaining within the parameters a life-system gives it.

Importing elements from other planets to burn or extract their energy will change the chemistry of Earth so the waste products will have to be exported back to the planet or asteroid they came from and that is highly unlikely to happen and neither science nor business (i.e. Private enterprise) have ethical standards and are not likely to create any either as there is an abundance of uranium, thorium, and potassium among other things on the Martian surface to be imported here, and don't believe for one second that they won't dump their waste products from their baldly designed reactors, here on Earth.

Multinationals, like nations, banks and religions are simply not big enough to think in those terms and in those magnitudes. These adolescent-like entities are smaller in philosophy than the most ardent and dedicated individualist or anarchist.

Science is happy with its logic and proofs, and business is happy with the sound of the cash register and organized religion is happy with its Bibles and none have any ethics or will take any responsibility in the suffering and destruction they cause where they can correct themselves if they did.

Society also has a hand where it tells you what food you should eat what energy you require as if these things themselves were alive and could talk, or these things recommended themselves to you through society and the media, where none of these things actually exist and inadvertently invite Augustine ideas back through the back door.

They don't like the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics because they can't patent this stuff or its devices especially if they involve open systems, but anyone is free to design such a system and I'm sure it would sell very well, just make sure you have the best one on the market for whatever application it's being meant for, which is something you can patent, trademark and copyright or even an exclusive service can be protected by law for a certain amount of time, but owning any part of Nature should be repealed from any law book.

So what if a competitor comes out with something better (like a better nuclear reactor), you come out with something better than his, or move on to something else. There are enough new inventions to go around a thousand times, for a thousand times the human population than what exists now and people will buy those invented things that suit their needs where people will find you with any decent search engine.

This way we have both private enterprise and free enterprise, making things and we have Nature telling us what's good, and not some anonymous society, religion or corporation telling us what's good and imposing this upon everybody too.

One day, we should be able to trade ideas with each other directly, and everyone prospers.

With "my" economic system everybody on this planet can be equivalent to a billionaire living the same luxury and comfort as those that exist today if that's what they want because everybody will buy each other's ideas that furnish a specific need somewhere for things and ideas that will come into being furnished from/by everybody and this will be fun too. One would just need better search engines that are not controlled by private advertising firms and social networks.

If no one buys your invention your not losing any money because you have no energy expenses anyway and that money is adjusted to maintain the most important things that concern your living arrangements and besides one should have many specifications and inventions to market if one is in that kind of business.

Besides, the bottom line for everybody is to live without having to pay for energy or heat. What one does with this energy or energy potential to create is everyone's own personal business and society benefits as well.

Technology, People and Life Should Be The Message, Not The Media Or Some Group

Nature gave us senses so that we could be aware of the Universe around us and not religious entities, governments, brand names or logos, products and their ideas.
Another angle to understand what philosophy is being imported into scientific/technology and its development is to ask whether they want to exploit the new philosophy it reveals to help us grow or if it's just going to become a tool to exploit life itself for the benefit of the few. See: Nobel Prize for medicine awarded for brain’s ‘inner GPS’ discoveries.

Tesla Coil Theory
As anyone can see, there are no such things as dead open circuits and they can be made very much alive.
To recapitulate: Nikola Tesla used the same principle with his systems involving electricity that still inspires awe. He is ridiculed by scientists because they actually don't understands his open electrical systems, and these ideas also go against the 'status quo' which is a euphemism for corruption and/or blindness and a vehicle to legitimize the exclusivity of/to private enterprise and none too Free enterprise.

When I was younger and went to an electronics trade school, they only taught closed or isolated electronic circuits and open circuits were dead circuits, when in actuality there is no such thing as a dead circuit (this is like saying there is no gravity in space and the planets, etc., move by themselves, where they feel like). This of course I tried to demonstrate to everybody in another fashion than Tesla during labtime, and of course I got suspended for a week, for a course I was paying for on top of that.

They refused to see the truth and treated me like a clown "who was disrupting the class", which was not true, but this was the excuse for the suspension I got, so I understand Tesla perfectly who was the man who gave the world electricity and broadcast radio whom "society" (private enterprise) made sure he died like a pauper. I know firsthand what happens to anyone who wants to make the world a better place. It's always better to be the artist where, as fish, as Kenneth Clark said: we always manage to slip through the net. I like to think, today that they calculated it would take a week to repair the programmed, brains of my peers in my class so as to become good and obedient thralls once again. To me electricity/electronics can be another medium of artistic expression in itself and not just a medium for expression and god forbid that the student surpasses his professor or the child surpasses his parents.

Today electronic condensers and inductors are used strategically, and made in a way, to make all electronics fail so you have to buy new and are not developed in any way to create the many more marvelous things that they can do with their open systems and the beautiful philosophy they have to offer along with them, and here I'm only talking about a couple of things and I have the repair bills to prove it.

Sometimes, inductors and condensers are invisible because they are created or manipulated into being, through a set of components, as part as Network or Parasitic elements called: 'Lumped element models' instead, losing their physical sense and only exist on a circuit diagram or schematic, rendering the thing absolutely irreparable, or requiring replacement of entire key elements which the manufacturer may or may not make available as there are no provisions in any law and/or any country to make this so because governments don't know what Network Elements are to create Consumer Protection Laws for them, and no one is telling them either, but Thermodynamics is.
Aside from already-existing religious and civil laws that go against Nature; Our laws, governing all invention and consumer products are all-encompassing as ideas or brands and have nothing to do with reality.

The law, can be seen as more primitive than any tradition coming from some primitive aboriginal tribe, in the way they see and deal with technology.

A gyrator would be the simple example in this case, as there are other Network examples in such things as printed circuits. This is not the same as the 'Lumped element model' that Wikipedia uses when they link the words 'Network Element' as that has to do with topology and takes advantage of shapes and constructions to simulate certain effects, and the 'Distributed element model' as well, which is a circuit that assumes all the components are already there, so they are not to be confused. The exact opposite of a Network element, in concept, would be an Anonymous function and are used to contain functionality that need not be named. I'm sorry to tell you, but there is a lot of psychology and psychiatry that goes on in when designing printed circuits and CPUs.

It is easier to get people to believe in things that don't exist than getting people to acknowledge facts and facts themselves can be networked elements which people might understand only as a conspiracy theory, where it is not a conspiracy, but merely sloppiness that got thrown together overtime and so becomes corruption.

At least in the past, when we purposely created this nonsense, it had a purpose and it was called the occult, or finding, torturing and burning witches was a good thing back then.
Believe me: We will appear just as ridiculous in the future with the things in tech we use and believe in their brand names.

My only practical advice for the consumer I can offer to weave through this mess, who is about to purchase a new HD

An electrolytic Condenser
television or whatever, is to remember any mental note of any brand name electronics you noticed in the garbage in the past, and walk into an electronic repair shop to see if there is a recurring circumstance of this data with what brand names are being repaired there.

Of course, such a mechanical device I described would be completely different from the science and manufacturing techniques we presently know and utilize, but for me, what is amusing and significant is that I just gave away too much information to those that understand open systems and not enough to those that follow closed and isolated system theory and ideas and can't see anything beyond their raised eyebrows.

So while I'm "painting this picture" I see the scenario unfolding where the closed system theorist (like Marconi) will try to steal work from the open system theorists (like Tesla) to compensate for their lack of understanding, but only see the immediate pot of gold at the end of the rainbow and not the rubies and sapphires too because he's so narrow minded and impatient.

600 K Tesla Coil
An open-system circuit technology
Specs up-above in diagram of Tesla Coil Theory
Open system theorists will have to learn to protect their ideas like they were their children and then properly release their invention to society at the appropriate time. An artist does not reveal every step of his work along the path of research and work because of our loathing of interference, and will only release his work when it is finished.

He releases the facts on its creation too when the work is released, which for science is very important for things like the Nobel Prize to put down a diary. Remember that science is often just big business and prestige and this is why I make a big deal about the differences between Private Enterprise and Free Enterprise which I write about in detail in the coming articles.

Keeping new ideas and inventions out of private hands or private organizations

With open system economic thinking, the tables are reversed where an inventor instead of selling or licensing his invention to one company or venture capitalist, he does this with a hundred companies who are only allowed to manufacture certain parts and not the whole invention. The rights to inspect, assemble, distribute and handle legal matters are handled by other companies by tender and per item of which the inventor and his investors can own or be a member of the board of any number of these control companies.

This way everybody and everything benefits from the inventor, the shareholders and the stakeholders down to the recycling bin. This business model can also be sold or licensed, even now, as a service for any kind of venture that is offered in one neat package and allows the inventor from any economic stature to inspect at any time the integrity of every aspect of any venture at any board meeting.

This will be the way to do business in the future as this is Inevitable because good ideas must never be put exclusively in the hands of multinational corporations and banks and it is people and their experiences from every corner of the globe who are valuable.

Further, no one should own any stocks in any venture they don't understand which is always the case anyway, so this eliminates that problem where one does not need to understand what one's investment does because it is so small and insignificant and would not leave a significant stockholder's footprint, but still pays off.

The trick here is when everything does finally collapse is to make sure that we don't fall into another Dark Age and certainly not follow any drumbeat because for sure they will use war to mop up their mess and erase everything and drum up stories about our supposed enemies and how evil they are to incite fear.

Never lose sight that all Middle Eastern, etc. terrorists were trained and are armed by the western powers in the first place, so everything you read, see or hear about in the Middle East is all manufactured mayhem and the western governments should be sending the agencies and multinationals that trained and equipped these psychopaths in the Middle-East to deal with them and not send kids who are still wet behind the ears.
When we trade with poor or undeveloped countries for their minerals we cannot pay for their gold with our gold. So, we look for the fanatics and mental/emotional defects and give them guns and armaments, who when they get into power will sign over their oil, minerals, etc., etc. That is the entire story of any South American or African etc., etc., dictator, warlord, terrorist, or whatever.

This also gets rid of the hatchet man, where a company that is not so prosperous anymore can get sold to a consortium where they trim off the bad finished products they sell/create and reorganize or rehabilitate the parts that are made everywhere that are perfectly good or need minor adjustment to create new products with new marketing schemes that are more profitable. General Electric and Yamaha do this and no one sees them laying of thousands off workers at anytime in their history. One day Yamaha is making pianos, the next day, at the same factory, it's making motor cycles.

These companies, with extreme versatility, change their product lines, not their personnel or workers who are highly trained and skilled. A factory at General Electric and a factory at General Motors are two entirely different types of factory and their workers are entirely a different type. Workers themselves should be asking themselves, "Do I have sufficient training to be able to work anywhere or be able to work elsewhere".

Anyway, with 'open system economics'  (as per The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics as a template) there are all kinds of fascinating ways to do things, but the bottom line is that it is always good for everybody and everybody can do what they do best and what they feel, at their own pace, in their own time, where no one interferes. This includes the removal of any unnecessary ideology or philosophy in economics like Marxism or Maoism simply because there are different classes of workers and peasants within themselves just like there are different classes of the elite who know the difference between private enterprise and free enterprise and Ayn Rand (as an example) is not one of them and everybody should be made aware of this phenomenon. I think everybody (including the corrupt) should be involved with our collective future and not just let it be limited to European royalty and aristocracy, governments, intellectuals, scientists, religions, banks, unions and corporations. They don't have enough authority or perspicacity over the realm of any future anyway, which belongs to everybody good or bad.

For as many artists and as many works of art there are, there is an equal number of potential scientists and inventions that could exist, but they won't allow us to explore this and instead tell us what to think and what do, so that the standard and predictable consumer is only possible, where the only laws that exist are there to serve systems, not life.
Systems are great for machines, but for life?
For our everyday purposes, on a stove;  a simmering unpressurized liquid (soup stock) will evaporate and the remaining liquid left over from evaporation will condense or as chefs and cooks refer to as "Reduction". Since this condensed liquid has something in the broth (food matter) and this is being done in the open air, this describes the beginnings of the delicate intricacies and subtleties of heat and Open systems because it is only mass that is getting reduced/condensed not matter. If you want to get smart with me and say: "What about the water that's evaporated" I will reply: "According to the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics, the whole house is part of the soup or sauce now, which you can tell by the aroma in the air, and there's your missing mass, and it's still part of the soup or sauce and getting rid of that mass will require additional energy"
This is the nice thing about dynamic open systems. One has to look at much larger and greater quantities of things inter-involving together, without having to bother in becoming a Buddhist.

Cooking is not only chemistry, but is also thermodynamics and the two are completely different things especially concerning Thermal Equilibrium. Matter, primarily, is also always connected to the Universe in one way or another and mass, primarily, always changes location in one way or another and these differences make-or-break any invention or recipe.

Only matter can achieve thermal equilibrium or change properties so these things primarily define Matter's distinction against any definition for Mass. Matter is magical and Mass is not so magical, but of course that is a matter of opinion. Mass does what energy tells it to do, and matter tells energy what to do before it does anything, and this goes for things that occurred in the beginning of time all the way up to what you are doing today on your stove (provided one knows how to use a stove to prepare delicious meals).

Any missing mass in the pan is simply elsewhere and the matter itself is evaporated and condensed, — not moved to another location, but also everywhere at once. Mass cannot be condensed, but better, matter's ability to evaporate and condense and change properties is simply another relationship that exists that is not mentioned in the First Law of Thermodynamics, but is with the Zeroth law of Thermodynamics.

Anyway, there are wondrous opportunities for everyone alive, and more, in this realm of open systems and this is not just confined to scientists or chefs, but Nature welcomes all good-hearted individuals to participate in Its Universe and enjoy life in one's own way that's pleasant and those whom one cares about.

My ink is venom.

So far, there is no experimental data relating to this effect, existence or philosophy in determining exactly the relationships between Matter, Mass, Temperature and Atmospheric Pressure because thinking about Time machines and looking for God Particles or building particle beam weapons is far more important so no one can be bothered and besides any open system is beyond their comprehension or they are thinking more about their power and their pockets.

You don't need a university education either to do this; only if you are looking for God particles, then you will need a university education for that. You will need to do your own experiments and submit your findings to Nature Magazine yourself and build an invention out of something derived from this from the comfort of home. Consider your first rejection from any portal to the scientific community a triumph, where you know that they should have sent back some of their own barbaric Pterosauric-age feathers that were ruffled by the paper you sent them, as proof that you were rejected. Ordinary matter, pressure, movement and heat and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics offers unexploited, extraordinary and unique opportunities for anyone to create new invention and ideas that have never been heard of before and we have barely scratched the surface in this area as it is a technology that is readily available to anyone because all these things are freely available or can be obtained without difficulty to create brand-new dynamic systems.

With Open, Isolated and Closed systems and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics, the sky's the limit of what you can accomplish, if you want, and create your own unique business venture and have fun doing this too. No stress, but a lot of hard work which you will love to do anyway if you love science, invention and philosophy.

One small example that goes far in many other applications since we are on the subject of food anyway. In everyday products like evaporated milk and condensed soup, but that involves a closed system and some would say an isolated system since either can be proved, depending what you are looking for and what you want (like everything else in science) but the Principle itself belongs to the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics and its open systems and then adapting them, or parts of them into closed or isolated systems is just a matter of course and is quite natural to do.

The trick, when adapting an invention/discovery to closed and isolated systems is to make sure the "waste" heat or Work are properly attended to, where that heat and/or Work are allowed to complete their cycles and not pollute, or create bad circumstances.

Evaporated milk is a process where one puts warm milk in a near vacuum because simmering would change the chemistry and flavor of the milk, but the delicate subtlety is in using warm milk because the evaporation of water at room temperature in a vacuum cools it too, as demonstrated in the next video clip ('Making Solid Nitrogen') of boiling water at room temperature (just ignore the title of the video clip because the water part is at the beginning, but it's not indicated in the title).
This is especially important for the chocolate industry because normal or reduced milk and chocolate will not mix, but evaporated milk concentrated to 30-40% solids will mix with chocolate so milk chocolate is actually evaporated-milk chocolate.

Anyway, if the venture capitalists don't want to invest in your invention or want to take it of your hands for 1% of what its worth. Do not be discouraged. There's a big market out there for handmade, low-tech looking things that may end up in the history books like all of the greatest things we have today and one can sell stuff door-to-door like they did in the past, or on Amazon or eBay or Kijiji and the products own website that you would create, and reinvest your profits to make fancier, shinier version over time, as your company gains capital and equity. There are also services like Survey Monkey where one can create one's own survey of/for whatever market one wants to try out.

A lot of people don't care what things look like, they only care if it works, is unique and it's easy to maintain. (Remember the first cell phones, Apple or Commodore Computers) You'll have the unique pride of creating something that only existed in your mind once and produce something everyone understands and can use, plus you will gain invaluable business experience that no money can buy and you will learn things they can't teach you in any business school. Expensive cars are still handmade and they can't keep up with demand, regardless of their cost. There is nothing that does not exist that does not have a lot of thought, effort and justifiable pride in it.

Making SOLID Nitrogen!
See how water is actually being refrigerated by boiling it because the word "boiling" is another word for "cooling".

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Time: 04:42 of your time.

On another practical note DVD-RW, DVD-RAM are possible because of a Phase Change Metal Alloy: which depending on the Laser, changes whether the disc is written, read, erased and re-written. Please check the links, provided above, where a lot of fascinating intricacies of DVD and CD are revealed, as those articles contain too many links to put them here, directly. For additional info on element phase changes, you can start with this article in Wikipedia: The Goldschmidt Classification.

The Wonderful World of Entropy

Understanding this, we arrive again to the Second Law of Thermodynamics — don't worry, if you can grasp what was explained earlier, and in the preceding paragraphs, concerning our butane can when it is involved in a closed system and the stuff about steam engines in the last page, you already know it. If you understand movement in an isolated system (shaking a can of butane or shaking a bottle of ordinary un-pressurized water) you know (and felt) the First law and what it means and does.

The Second Law of Thermodynamics is the place where our de facto gods like to play and love to put in their two cents and run the planet with those two cents; which makes it a model of efficiency in a marginally relative, but negative sense. It seems, everybody has something to say about the Second Law as if this thing ran the Universe and everybody is an expert on "Entropy".

Here, we'll just iron out some of the rough spots before moving on as quickly as I can, as there is certainly no shortage of information and misinformation concerning this subject, but depending on your education and beliefs this is the main cause or description of everything that goes on in your world and makes it happen if you live in any civilization, but turns your entire life into a fabrication, removed from all substance of actual existence, with holes and fuel tanks, plugs and sockets to fill with the obligations they carry that are, along with the Work involved, poison poised upon taxpayer's, consumer's, aboriginal's and third world nation's shoulders instead, including all animal and plant life affected by man's "technology".

It is the manufactured world created by the rich, the religious and the intellectual, ostensibly to help the "Poor-little people" which is their own invention because no one is actually poor because there are actually many different forms of value, and it is society and its bullies that create "poor people" and inequality.

Here we see something not covered by Maxwell with the compression-decompression cycle of a simple wave. We find that electromagnetic wave theory is also a transitive process. This applies from sound waves to gamma waves and beyond. Atmospheric pressure would be replaced by a "Field" with energies surpassing 20,000 HZ.
This consumer-grade Second Law must not be confused with heat theories resembling Second Law of Thermodynamics as per Natural Philosophy that predate any theories about the big bang or "entropy". Like Maxwell's theories concerning Electromagnetism, there was a need to put an Abrahamic god somewhere in these ideas or theories concerning heat, hence "entropy" and later the big bang and today with god particles and undoubtedly something else in the future will be made to appear where it is not necessary and sometimes even harmful.

RTSP Video
Being raised in Silicon Valley.
Good or Bad, whether you were raised by your mother or father, or left to be raised by multinational corporations through computers or the media; wherever this law takes you with its multitudinous devices, it's a ride you will never forget. Even going to heaven and hell are explained according to the consumer-grade Second law of Thermodynamics and is just another system within that law, which is miraculous!
The Second Law of Thermodynamics is basically, "Hot goes to "Cold" which is as ridiculous as like saying "Wet goes to Dry" because this turns common sense into science and religion.
It also gives Cold unique properties and characteristics that are misleading, or do not exist, all the while ignoring Thermal Equilibrium as per all thermodynamic systems involved. i.e. Open, closed and isolated systems.

After that, they mostly discuss Entropy as if one could talk about it in the second law since it already has this thing built-in, but they treat it as a separate subject that miraculously has escaped the bottle it comes from and corrodes the universe itself!

This is because the consumer-grade second law creates a singular, unique and erroneous definition for cold.
In actuality, cold can be many things and be even more useful than heat if we include Work, Open and Isolated systems in our theory, equations and applications because temperature and pressure serve many things besides chemistry and physics.

There are many in theoretical/particle physics that claim to be experts on "entropy", while the general population has made it a cause célèbre of philosophy and/or reference point for justifying apathy to mask, or repackage, their own feelings of slavery.

ENTROPY IS NOT A THING, OR STATE OF BEING! It is a dynamic, which depends on the elemental-matter system. It is either; "always increasing", "always decreasing", "never increasing", or "never decreasing" and there are always trade-offs which produce new properties, new systems, new dynamics, etc,. ect.
Some enjoy confusing everybody by using the term Chaos, which is not Chaos Theory, as this is something entirely different.

I have said elsewhere; "any science or pseudoscience that only limits its systems to one or two flaws laws is not science or philosophy at all but a business, or it only describes a particular device and you are in a trade school and just looking for a job because any proper theory or idea in science and philosophy, must contain elements of all the laws of thermodynamics within them when properly explained, even those systems that don't involve heat or refrigeration because there is nothing that exists that cannot be broken down to the movements of energy, and the motivations of/to work and the Thermal Equilibrium of Matter." This, also, applies to quantum physics/mechanics.

Anything going on in a simple glass of water that can be held Relatively in place, in any manner, is also what's happening, as it would, if it were the entire Universe. All these new theories that don't make sense or become vehicles for modern mysticism can be rid of in one fell swoop by making all theorists explain their ideas Thermodynamically first.

One form of Entropy
Yet, this one (and very important) aspect of Information theory in/for any closed system.
Entropy (they say) is such, that every closed system is doomed to fall apart and stop if you don't put energy and work into it. Even if you leave something alone, but remember: This only applies to closed systems, but they make it sound like the entire universe, and everything and life is like this. There are other words for this, like slavery, thralldom, serfhood, bondage, feudalism, indenture, peonage, drudgery, indenture, servitude, subjection, depression, sociopathy and vassalhood. The most important question to ask is; To whom is this important and why? They never discuss open systems and Entropy yet they talk about the Universe all the time and tell us, fatalistically, what it's made of and what life is, how it started and how it will all end, just like the Triple Expansion Engine, which could run perfectly on sub-zero compressed air, and present that thing as the standard model and the height of engineering achievement.

9/11 You Tuber's believe that the Universe is a closed system because they all pick fights with me in any comment section at the slightest mention of the word "Open". So I don't leave comments on anything anymore (or try not to). To me, it's so funny that countries that talk about "Freedom and Liberty" are the most closed-minded members of the population that apparently don't like the word "open".

We see this with North and South American history, where the the wild west was opened to be enclosed and exploited. "Freedom and liberty" came at the cost of the annihilation of many alien systems (new for us) for life and liberty that never exploited anything. The Americas were doing very very well by themselves and had no need for European and Asian ideas, technology, systems and concepts.
It is a murdered evolution that we will never get to see or know how far man would of grown there.

According to Thermodynamics: "Freedom and Liberty" should include everything and not just a group of people.
Value, work, energy, information and ideas are to enjoy "Freedom and Liberty" too and not just be one sided, controlled or just flow in one direction. These thing have been doing fine for billions of years without any human assistance, or interference. Now, we show up and tell Nature what to do?

So, while the privileged and the banks become bloated with unnecessary wealth, which can only be used in abuse because none of that money was raised with/for any human philosophy, whose profit ends up having no purpose, so its difficult to put that money anywhere except to make things rotten.

The rest are forced to use the exact machinery that will destroy everything they worked for all his or her life, and contaminate the environment too, and there is nothing they can do about it and there is no way for anyone to escape either and the exclusive use of The Second Law of Thermodynamics justifies this because people believe that this is the only way Nature works because they have been taught to believe this, and belief systems are not just the exclusive domain of religion.

As said previously, all modern philosophies are based on this type of thinking that already have this built-in Second Law-type conclusion — So why do they speculate on anything?

All their wonderful ideas, themselves, fall apart, eventually, and get replaced with new philosophies because they are also closed systems. Look up yourself and see how many 'philosophies' there have been in history and they all worked fine in their time and everybody believed that theirs was the absolute truth.

There is no such thing as actual disorder or chaos and when Nature plays dice, it does this in an open system and there, no one loses (The Law of Sufficiency countermands the Laws of Probability), but one can only lose in a closed system, — even Nature, if It was stupid enough to play chance-games inside a closed system.

Game Show: You Can't Win
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Add matter into any of their sage "equations" and always-increasing entropy disappears entirely and everyone is better off geometrically.
Remember the expression; "The House never Loses" is actually a closed system ideal, and can exist because people are already trapped and targeted in such things that accommodate, and actually facilitate in the creation of added weaknesses in humanity that can then be exploited by others for profit, that would not exist anywhere else or in any open system and weaknesses are created by lack of opportunities and diversity which only a closed system can accomplish.

According to thermodynamics, (if it were an entity): Politics and corporations and organized religions are structured like any other criminal society and The Second Law of Thermodynamics Is entropy itself and does not require any fine tuning, like "Entropy", to confuse everything.

Just the idea of Hot only going to Cold directly is, itself, an irretrievable loss, inefficient and unworthy of Nature and does not fit into any reality anywhere in the cosmos, quantum mechanics or on Earth, which explains why the Third Law of Thermodynamics exists.

Hot does go to cold, but they never tell you that thermal equilibrium puts a stop to that eventually and when that happens there is still heat.
As if that was not enough, Nature has entropy to make sure the universe does not get colder than the ambient temperature of the universe (background radiation) and also puts a limit to how hot an isolated and/or closed system can be made, which is the problem created with building a fusion reactor.

It's all a pretend universe for systems that are closed, unsustainable, and not automatic. Think about that next time your teacher makes you swear the pledge of allegiance, or your favorite brand tries to sell you an idea, or your organized religion trying to sell you a place on the either side of god in heaven.

Nature likes to play games too. Things like Tic-Tac-Toe, Baccarat, Slot Machine, etc. which are only Equivalence games which are discussed, and other goodies, in my next articles on The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics and its Principles.

What we see as disorder, chaos, probabilities, etc. are only because of our present understanding of things, or we are programmed to see them this way by looking around the thing and calling what's inside chaotic instead of looking at the form and observing equilibrium always being sought out within with every possible combination and contradiction.

When we play Tic-Tac-Toe, no one can win, but when the loser learns the strategy he can never lose ever again and there is no one that can be defeated. When Nature plays Tic-Tac-Toe or slot machines without "fences" and every possibility is allowed, all at the same time, not one at a time, It creates a Universe. Disorder, chaos and probabilities along with molecular kinetic movements are solids, liquids gases, etc. manifest and many other things (ex: affinities and chemical reactions go way beyond just the power of electrons in an open system) and they help us create all our wonderful things, which are Nature's application of "disorder" and "chaos" and kinetics.

It is mathematics that is forced to deal, measure or calculate completely subjective things (like chaos) in the first place, and through the mathematician, is used to vindicate those ideas which are no different than a Kabbalist trying to vindicate Augustine-like ideas for fun.

Scene from War Games (1983)
Here, a computer learns that, in certain closed system games, it can't win.
Click or tap on pic
The expression should be amended to "Nature never loses". When man put fences around things he already limits possibilities doing this so it is the fence that creates the chaos and disorder, not the thing or contents themselves.
Left by themselves, "they" are doing their own thing and the universe is doing fine!

The Syllogy: Therefore, it is only the creation of order that can create chaos like the perfect fence because disorder does not come from itself. Take the fences out, or leave things alone in any system and everything is instantly orderly again seeking their own dynamic equilibrium.
Everything you can think off, by itself, has a job to do in the universe.

It can follow its unique purpose all by itself as proposed by its system and will never get out of hand because of thermal equilibrium, and because there is no interference in Nature's business that somehow knows what it's doing and always finds some equivalence.
Equivalence: It is the universe knowing itself with what its got.

By observing Nature we don't need scientists, intellectuals and philosophers to tell anybody what things are, but this takes time and a lot of people depend on the scientist to tell them the truth including what they think their research is good for and what would be its philosophy.

When I discuss Nature, here and anywhere else, you must remember that Nature is not an individual or entity like a god but as a physical reality known as the Universe, and you are part of this universe, which is plenty spiritual enough for anyone's needs should you be so inclined to think that way.

One thing for certain, is that we don't need a false god, even if it's just an idea, because it cannot have any properties and to worship something that has no properties is not worship.
Tic-Tac-Toe Game From Classic Arcade Games

I maintain that only Nature has the capacity to create something out of nothing because it is Sufficiently Equivalent to everything, and that it can be registered with any Thermodynamic Zeroth Law based devise anywhere in the Universe by anybody and this is registered as Zero Zero and is its own infinity like every other system that comes before and after 0 0.

A Negative Hippopotamus
The ridiculous nonsense of the intellectual and their closed-system arguments.
In this clip from the standpoint of modern philosophy on the subject of 'Nothing' and attaching properties to things we are not certain exist or are unprovable; What it is and its importance.
Thermodynamics would say: If we had a room large enough, eventually we would find a hippo in it. If the room were small enough, there would be no chair. Only the system and the limits of our fences creates the "possibilities" and realities.
If people pay attention to their nonsense and can even sell advertising on their channels, then I should have no problem selling Thermodynamics to others.

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"Entropy" also describes where energy goes after its "usefulness" has expired, but it does not mean that it is gone; the only thing that is gone is its usefulness to humankind and with what kind of closed technology we employed it for (remember the First Law).
This energy, "that cannot be created or destroyed" gives different forms of matter and elements their particular properties that, now, can be seen with their particular-signature pulsations and movements.
They say the universe is 99% void, but there is a lot of activity going on in those "voids".

"Entropy" also proves that the entire edifice of science based only on energy should be scrapped, and in this I'm not trying to be ironic, but it is the situation these intellectuals put themselves into that create their own irony much like the Useless Flyer displayed above. Nature is only putting away that energy where we can't touch it anymore because we abused it in a certain way, the same way any parent would remove or destroy a kid's Play Station if it abuses that and makes him/her do his/her homework or read a book instead.

In fact, Entropy has never existed in all history and philosophy until we created it with our crazy machines attached to crazy ideas by scary people and the Entropy in the Universe, itself, is part of its Matter, not energy and it is through the Universe's Matter we know of entropy, — not its energy, as energy itself cannot reveal anything about itself unless it exists as some field.

The question to ask is, why is only the purposely-made bad parts of thermodynamics are made popular. What are they (authority) trying to hide, or keep hidden?

It is the world we live in, that we create for ourselves, that is totally unbelievable, not the Earth itself. Our technology that we are so proud of that gets us from A to B, and puts electricity in our homes and industry, is no better than blowing into a child's toy balloon, inflating it and letting it go.

The sound it makes while flying around is also quite appropriate, provided that you interpret this sound as expelling intestinal gas.

That's modern physics except that its all fancyfied and glorified, where toilet paper, after it has been used for wiping, has more honesty on it than any scientific paper written today where they have improved upon Newton's idea of, "what goes up must come down" and apply this to a flying balloon instead that goes up and must run out of gas and it is we who are riding on that balloon that must fall down and we are not just observing this phenomenon, but are inside it.

Entropy could be the form of energy utilized by beings existing in the Galaxy, but on another plane, magnitude or dimension, whose understanding of mathematics is quite different from ours where our own precise and pure closed systemed mathematics appears to them as probabilities, or even gibberish.

Who's not to say that intelligent beings don't exist in a sea of moving particles in matter where the movements of atoms are like the ocean here, and who is to say our oceans are any better and more beautiful. Wherever there is movement, there is life somewhere. Instead of improving communications between people who have nothing to say anyway except: "Look at me!" or, "Buy This", we should be developing communications with 'Possibilities' themselves which is something Dr. Timothy Leary described very beautifully.

Overall, there is no such thing as inactivity and nothing will ever be nothing, except for us and our closed systems. There are no fundamental particles, but only fundamental particles for different orders of matter, where in this way, they can go on indefinitely because size and shape does not matter because it is the 'Order' and system that determines its properties and character in terms of substance.

Even those particles they say cannot be split, like electrons or gluons, must be made of something to have their own unique properties which, already, in idea form, are a lot of things themselves that are needed to be and done, to create these special things where in an open system there are probably other ways to split particles besides smashing them "apart".

Protons allow themselves to be split "apart" in this manner of smashing through acceleration, but electrons and gluons do not, so any particle physics experiment can mean something, but somewhere "Nothing" must be included somewhere, also and this opens a can of logic-worms where nothing will ever make any sense by the way their experiments are created and interpreted.

This is exactly like the example I provided, of the uranium ore samples from Gabon sent to a lab thousands of miles away, instead of looking at the whole picture, which a laboratory on site would have done, but that would mean education spilling over to the natives.

This is why I say Entropy does not belong with The Second Law and should be applied to another law instead or be with The First Law of Thermodynamics where they would be forced to better reword the thing with all systems (open closed and isolated) included. That is, I'm assuming that the Laws of Thermodynamics are meant solely to describe how heat acts and then can be carefully applied elsewhere because heat does a lot of wonderful things besides just going from A to B and only does so by way of finding or creating an equivalence.

This has been going on since there was a beginning. Since these circumstance (a beginning) say that the original beginning is an equivalence to nothing regarding the nature of heat and its finding or creating an equivalence or equilibrium. This means there was never a beginning and we must begin thinking in terms not yet possible beyond our linear or self-repeating-cycle understanding of things.

Perhaps, through exercise, careful study, meditation, or through the use of some popular illegal street drug, this new awareness and understanding may be stimulated or kick started, where its process will permanently take root in human awareness, in the course of time.
Thermodynamics will light the way from thereon.

There is no truth better than heat and its travels. It is the only place where poetry, science and mathematics meet as equals. If fact, it would difficult to distinguish any differences! The true nature of the universe and existence (in any form) is defined by heat, in our capacity for awareness and understanding it. Heat/matter is the signature of the universe's dynamic truth.

Although there should be no problem in classical mechanics, entropy is better treated, today, in quantum mechanics and nuclear physics with the Third Law of Thermodynamics see: (Ultra Cold Temperatures) in that successful ways have been found to begin calculating entropic energy movements, simply because matter is so cold in this area, these entropic movements move more slowly so they can be studied with more ease and by default, this energy is already in a new system where it becomes useful again because the open system of the Universe must also be accounted for, in one way or another.

This was not the intention of its developers, but exists because of the truly beautiful mathematics needed for quantum theory by its pioneers, early in the 20th century. Quantum Mechanics already has shown us the potential that science and mathematics can go to and unfortunately is now only being hampered by those very closed systems and by subjectivity that keeps mathematics from growing in the first place where "counterintuitiveness" is treated as a reality in itself and it's quantum mechanic's fault that is somehow against a new universe it must reveal.

Sometimes I wonder who is more ignorant or insightful today: A Ph.D with his lack of vision or an illiterate with lots of logical use of his/her imagination. Anyway these guys are only after energy anyway so that they can patent some process and mostly leave matter and its properties alone, which is left to nuclear chemists to do what they want with at the patent office, so everyone can own and control a part of Nature.

This of course, is not the solution (The Third Law), but is only one method that is now being employed to work with this, but just this alone, has produced unheard of and unprecedented possibilities and discoveries in science and engineering where we have to take the good with the bad like what happened to the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

If Rupert Murdoch never existed
This is where my disbelief comes from with modern-day physics and chemistry (as shown earlier), where through Cold temperature Physics it is impossible to separate Thermodynamics from Physics, Chemistry, Cosmology and Quantum theory yet we have a multitude of Ph.D's in these fields that know absolutely nothing about any Law of Thermodynamics beyond what the average Joe or Jane knows. Without even elementary thermodynamics everything in science today is just 100% stercus tauri and is just media drivel probably created by Rupert Murdoch himself where the only thing that is missing are artfully-placed woman's breasts and racism.

In one sense, Entropy does not exist because by putting it in another system that man has no access to, it becomes useful energy again that produces finely detailed work, and in another sense it is not useful because it makes us adapt to it where it then changes us, and our industry, and not the other way around.
Before anyone teaches us about gods, we should be teaching the Entropies instead.

If "Entropy" did not exist we would have things like the Superfluid liquid and gas Helium II (isotope 4) floating around in the cosmos and interfere with the Laws of Physics throughout the Universe, which are governed by properties of matter.
This also gives further insight into a dynamic called, "never-increasing entropy" where laws and reality have a dynamic, —not a static basis. In Thermodynamics, we can be made aware of dynamic constants and not just invisible laws and their constants.

So, like in the First Law of Thermodynamics, it all depends on who and what you are that will form your opinion, but Entropy definitely has a useful purpose in an open system where without it you can just kiss everything goodbye because it is directly responsible for the Laws of Physics as we know them and there we discover that entropy is doing good things that are valuable everywhere, in everything.

When we compare all available exergy and compare this to the amount of entropy in the Universe, we find that entropy is a real bargain comparatively speaking and that it is the only form of energy that has a place in the Universe equivalent to describing a quantity and location of something in space as if it were matter.

So Entropy, in the sense of its place in the Universe, is itself something very special and unique among the things considered energy. Entropy proves that just plain existence of any kind produces heat and this is why things like dark matter and dark energy don't exist because they don't produce any heat; so they don't exist and are just convenient man-made inventions, like Maxwell's Gnostic god and luminiferous aether in the 19th century. (Both, of which neither make/made any thermodynamic sense either, so their failure could of been predicted in advance before their time came, where they were disproven or became redundant/superfluous.)

Everyone must decide for themselves whether they love Nature or love closed system mathematics because one cannot have both at this magnitude simply because a simple thermometer (with a scale indicating any three phases of matter) is more universal than any number theory, and all because of entropy.

We simply do not possess the mathematics yet to understand those numbers and no one is inclined to develop them, beyond that we now call "chaos" and "disorder" or what may be dreamed up by religious philosophers, and confine everything to closed and isolated proofs (mathematics), which in the end doesn't prove anything.
These types, like modern scientists, are only interested in profit and power and are as far removed from the truth as a murderer can be from love.

It is the height of impudence and stupidity only to use and teach entropy as described by those theoretical physicists by using pictures of things like (I quote) "a typical" teenager's messy room as an example or dismiss the whole thing as "entropy caused by disorder and laissez faire".
This "thing" (entropy) is so badly taught that it makes one wonder who they are trying to teach, and not what they are trying to teach.

Further, to even assume that Nature would allow rampant chaos and disorder in Its universe, where applying energy (of course, only the kind that can be taxed and controlled by private interests) to any system as a magical panacea and cure-all is indescribably stupid and arrogant beyond anything I can imagine.

Especially when a lot of these intellectuals still hold on to antiquated Platonic, Aristotelian, Newtonian, Cartesian and racist ideals and intellectual bigotry (atheism), and as if putting the cart before the horse, make laws for things (like entropy) that they know nothing about, nor is there any mathematics or experiments to support their ideas on Entropy itself, which is basically an 'energy genie' that cannot be put back in a bottle and is only resistant to closed systems.

They invented Entropy because the concept of god (Gnosticism) was already being used with the First and Second Law of Thermodynamics and Maxwell's Electromagnetic Propagation Theory so they created a devil to do the things that are normally assigned to god when the devil is not busy.

Further, these ancient philosophies are ill-equipped to deal with entropy because the concept did not exist for them to conjugate in their time, so why do they use and apply these philosophers today?
"Entropy" is a nuisance to all theorists, philosophers and intellectuals because if they say one single piece of stercus tauri, it will eventually come out one way or another, and there is nothing they can do about it.

TV Dinner
Entropy in a "nutritional" form.
So, they slough off the thing on everyone thickly, so no one notices anything and everyone becomes apathetic and/or an artifice. They even put entropy in our food that exists as a system to eat and be entertained at the same time and call it "TV Dinner".

In the movie industry they call entropy the "Sequel", "The Remake" or "Enhanced" and they provide moviegoers with overpriced popcorn, artificial butter, candy and chocolate bars for nutrition and energy. In the record industry, they use something that's called, "Greatest Hits" or "remastered" which they also do in the movie industry.

All these things may as well be called "The other Poisons" that are very useful because they defy any forensics except for the abundant sugar and salt content. The murder of all is set forth in a variety of always-increasing entropies that take over all existence by merely creating a system that has just enough entropy in it to kill, and the beauty is that this can be controlled to produce any form of mayhem or diseases one wishes to produce for as long as whoever or whatever likes, while sitting back at a safe distance like a planned nuclear strike, or a typical germ experiment performed on remote villages.

In public, we have the fluoridation of water which:
Increases lead absorption, causes/Disrupts synthesis of collagen, Hyperactivity and/or lethargy, Muscle disorders, Thyroid disease, Arthritis, Dementia, Lowered thyroid function, Bone cancer (osteosarcoma), Inactivates 62 enzymes and inhibits more than 100, Inhibited formation of antibodies, Genetic damage and cell death, Increases tumor and cancer rate and Damages sperm and increases infertility. Then, we have a ban on tobacco (known to make your brain sharper) while the legalization of Marijuana (known to make one stupid and lethargic) is full speed ahead.

Dynamically, our species is learning to live and nurture disease growth, where always-increasing entropy is used like a petri dish to perform this function. Conflict, instead of being used in a positive manner to fight bad systems, is used instead to kill life to resolve the problems created by the always-increasing entropy systems we used to promote change.

18th Century Superman, Baron Munchhausen and friends meets the arms-dealer Vulcan and his workers, the Cyclops, at Mount Etna after coming back to Earth from the Moon.
Use for this clip.

(Click or Tap on Vulcan's face to see clip)

A scientist sees 'Entropy,' and artist sees 'Freedom' which themselves are a lot of things for different types and both will exploit their realms respectively and describes things completely differently, yet we are talking about the same thing except that one uses closed system concepts and the other uses open system concepts.

Unfortunately, the artist's version of entropy (and thermodynamics) is not the accepted one created by committees, and thankfully it is none of our business either. My job is only to communicate positive ideas and truths in any medium possible and create an experience out of it, and my work is done. Like Buckminster Fuller, I consider myself a citizen of Nature.

I don't seek to profit from this as I have no idea what to do with money anyway, beyond what I need to live and I have no secrets to hide and I couldn't care less what anyone thinks of me (as if it is anyone's business or concern).

I think, philosophically, only as in an open system, so any information about me is meaningless to any closed or isolated system or philosophy, but I enjoy watching people, such as this, waste their time and think they have accurate information about me or my intentions when someone comes along, only to interfere and never contribute or collaborate because in an equivalent manner of thinking, this information is altered by and for their own purposes and the more they do this the less accurate this information becomes.

It is a bigotry and setup of the most deceptive and "entropic" kind; meaning that their own dissertations are a form of always-increasing Entropy itself and it only exists because a lot of people think they are the scientific versions of Abraham, meaning that they turn things like 'heat dissipation' into a bad thing because they decided this, or agree with that, when heat dissipation is actually a form of radiation into an open system that goes to Nowhere — Not Cold, which is created or absorbed by all matter.

In mechanics: Friction is what makes consumer-grade second-law machines and devices work in the first place in the form of Fluid Viscosity, all the while ignoring the rules and concepts involving Specific Heat which does not have any specific maths involved, — even today, because then they would have to describe open systems, which is where Specific heat goes to and not to Entropy.

Check these things yourself if you don't believe me. I have nothing to gain here, as I am a completely unqualified outsider that is only putting disturbing information together for you to radiate read for the sheer fun of it and where hopefully someone out there might learn something meaningful for himself, if that's what he wants for himself.

So, is friction "efficiency" that makes a device work in the first place (viscosity) or is it part of entropy that makes it break down (friction and wear), and where do they draw the line? I suppose it depends on who you are talking to, while considering his motivations.

It is like the Absorption Refrigerator I showed and explained: Is the thing inefficient because of moisture in the distilled ammonia vapour or efficient because of its Absorber and who decides (if this is noticed) which one is more important and why and then give the device a name and specific purpose?

This is because anywhere one finds inefficiency one will find 100% efficiency somewhere else in the same system and it is where you find that 100% efficiency, one finds the back-end of the entire system. It appears lot of science is only in the mind and this is why it's hard for me to take the findings, comments and conclusions seriously when I read scientific journals, papers, documentaries or videos.

So, lying to the public and misleading the taxpayer has become a science, and can now be foiled with the help of The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics anytime one applies its transitive principles to anything suspicious and the nice thing about the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics is that you don't need to be a genius, and you know that heat and its movements become a model to any other dynamic, no matter how abstract.

Read up on Air-cooled engines to find another interesting angle about "lubricants". It depends what you are looking at, and what you need it for, and sometimes who you are.

Blame governments, engineers, intellectuals and industrialists for any inefficiency, obsolescence and self-destructing capability in/of any device and don't go around blaming Nature and "Entropy" as it is the scientist's job to create something out of nothing and not do the reverse and use It as an excuse. The whole thing is a technological way of life and philosophy designed to exploit, steal, plagiarize and rob everything (even among themselves) with created systems that make this possible and creates a nightmare for existential philosophers of every kind to describe, — so they write plays and become alcoholics.

There is only 'Good' or 'Bad' or 'God' or, etc. and all emotion and importance in the human psyche is assigned to these things, where we as living beings have emotions, intelligence, concepts and ideals that go way beyond the isolated and closed systems they furnish, but we are forced to use only the venues and concepts they provide, where people live and die under these limited circumstances when we are capable of so much more.

Our emotions and intelligence need more too, where if they are not provided by society, we generate the alternative elements of our characters and express them in ways that erode everything. The oppressors want their cake and eat it too and artists know that when someone starts attaching ideas into things that are perfect already by themselves, then there is much more at stake than what they would have anyone believe.
INEZ: So this is hell. I'd never have believed it. You remember all we were told about the torture-chambers, the fire and brimstone, the "burning marl." Old wives' tales! There's no need for red-hot pokers. HELL IS--OTHER PEOPLE!

- Sartre, No Exit

They say we only use a small percentage of our brains. Well blame that on society and its closed universes because the brain's thinking is supposed to be a part of an open system that stretches beyond itself into any environment, not a closed or isolated system working exclusively for someone else, who's probably incompetent, bourgeois or psychotic. What we don't use is what's theoretically available if we merge the brain and nervous system with the outside and become part of it, like we did in the Stone age.

Fluid Viscosity (friction) and the van der Waals Force
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Time: 00:52 of your time.

Remember when I talked about certain people's love affair with arrows? Well here, with entropy, the arrow is used philosophically in what they call "The Arrow of Time" which I won't dignify with any discussion. Entropy is the Triple Expansion-like "steam engine" that makes their idea work. Rudolf Clausius gave it a mathematical interpretation. Ludwig Boltzmann, Josiah Willard Gibbs, and James Clerk Maxwell gave entropy a statistical interpretation. Constantin Carathéodory preferred a geometrical approach. Someone's been very busy. So even among scientists, there are many points of view and none are completely correct, yet they all have the same value, which is a contradiction because this is science not art, where with science there can be only one truth and with art there are many truths, as one has an imagination to create, but like children, one is not better than the other. The way we think about entropy today, will be viewed in the future the same way we view ancient thinkers when they discussed the heavens, and Earth was its center and the Earth was flat and supported on the back of a gigantic tortoise.

The Ptolemaic Cosmological model held sway for more than a thousand of years because these ideas suited a Neoplatonic and Aristotelian brand of economics, politics and religion thinking. This way of handling ideas works for religion, business and politics where opinion is the only thing that matters and the laws of physics must conform to their ends.

So, because all this excellent Greek, Egyptian and Babylonian science and technology that did not follow newly-invented religious doctrines was destroyed; all these ancient discoveries in how the universe actually is and works, (which they profited from directly), were already covered by natural discoveries.
So, their doctrines, ideals and practices themselves are unnecessary, but the social-invention of god, power and money are supposed to come before everything.

Science and religion have become organized and political and no longer do what they are supposed to be doing. Worse, they no longer do or represent the things they say, they are.
If A = B and B = C, then A = C

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They then destroyed Nature so that the social invention "god", power and money comes first instead. The people who ran the world then, politically, economically and spiritually, knew perfectly well that the world was not the center of the Universe and the world was not flat, but it makes more sense to make people believe ideas you can control. Today's science is now into that racket too.

In science, it is proof not scientific opinion that is supposed to be the adopted consensus, —and that becomes scientific and philosophical truth. The same thing occurs today with private enterprise where they export factories like chess pieces to different countries ostensibly because the wages are lower, which politically is a disaster because it emphasizes only one form of value and not other values..

They actually put their factories and machines in places where the simplest and most desperate people imaginable exist, in areas of the world where the law, education, books and access to information is a joke and a traditional-computerized and pre-programmed human being, via local religious authorities, is the law.

As soon as they dumb down the west through the educational system and with organized religion, the always-increasing entropy factories will be back running full blast and everyone will think they are successful and prosperous consumers. One can see this happens all around you, right now. The following is just a small sample I found in a matter of 30 minutes which included the time to look at them and post them here.
Today: A civilization and it's success is measured by how many factories and industries it contains and how much it exports, and not by its people's education, awareness and self-sufficiency.

From the TYT Network On the Republicans in the United States want to remove the right to critical thinking. (I was never aware that such a thing as "critical thinking" existed, in the first place.)

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Time: 04:23 of your time.

"The Erosion of Progress by Religions"
American astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson discusses how Islamic fundamentalist destroyed the "enlightenment era of the Middle East" and why we should be concerned today. We must not take this too seriously though, because Islamic and even Christian fundamentalism is also caused from outside interference so it would be naive to think that the reasons he cites here are the only reasons.

Further, he makes the error in that he assumes the entire Islamic world was "enlightened" when in fact it was only Islamic-Arab Spain, the Turks in the Anatolian peninsula and Persia who were enlightened and the rest of the Islamic world was just as "backward" as any backward Christian community today. This is American/Western-world propaganda at its best which divides us from "them" instead of making distinctions within the Islamic world.
( Astrophysicists should study geographical history to compliment their study of the stars.)

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Time: 10:18 of your time.

For instance, it's always better to refer to Big Bang stuff as 'Big Bang Cosmology' and this way everybody is happy and one stays out of trouble too since the magic pressure, itself, possesses would make these cosmological theories impossible because pressure changes the property of matter and inflation would do just this by increasing the pressure upon any matter where, as demonstrated, the properties of matter are always attended to first before energy movements and no one can calculate the pressure during inflation to determine matter's properties then. A proton in a vacuum and a proton under millions of pounds of pressure are each a different thing and will exhibit different properties, including the substances that created the pressure. Further any proton moving at different speeds are a different thing and cannot be expected to react like a proton at rest with the same properties as this is commonly known with the neutron.

We worry too much about Entropy because our plane of existence is very close to it because we cultivate Entropy in our use of technology and then blame Nature for any problems and we are getting worse by making machines that now produce more than 80% Entropy and by far, they are the most popular of all machines on the consumer market and there are not even figures available for the Waste heat these machines produce. A diesel locomotive producing 26% efficiency is considered "remarkable"; to me, this should be considered "unacceptable" and it's ludicrous to build machines like this even if we had an unlimited supply of petroleum with no consequences attached and then base an entire civilization and economy on this too.

The goal of all civilizations including its populations, rich or poor, throughout history is to arrive at 100% Entropy and then every closed system collapses upon itself. Then, we start all over again for nothing beginning with a new religion, but no new ideas because all the libraries, historically, get burnt. Such is the cycle of any civilization. When you see ignorant rednecks, evangelists, smirking theoretical physicists on video driving expensive sports cars to demonstrate Relativity, neo-Nazis, racists, bigots, bullies, sexists, Homeland security, more prisons, psychopaths, etc, etc., more and more in the media.
That can be considered a phase change going on in a society or civilization and gives everyone the opportunity to see the future, Via A = C, now presented in HD. They don't want people to get too smart so upheavals, and rigged technologies, networked elements and systems and other nonsense are created on purpose. Civilization and society starts at home and not the office and is not the domain of governments or anonymous societies or organized religious entities.

There is nothing disorderly in entropy because its movements can be slowed, in an orderly fashion especially at temperatures below -457.87 °F and this occurs perfectly too so we see, here, a huge contradiction especially where I'm not even discussing matter here, which as you know I love to do. Nature allows this because anything that occurs at below -457.87 °F is an "Informational Isolated System" and cannot affect the Universe directly. Anything done or stored and retrieved there requires energy from matter from this Universe itself to become reality. Energy alone is used for other purposes, but not for information. This is why zero viscosity "Perpetual Fountains", among other things, exist in low temperature physics because to make this phenomenon a reality, you have to put in energy from this side of the Universe, in this cases it is light which can produce an amazing amount of mechanical work. Just this action alone demonstrates that at least peripherally, there is some kind of organization in entropy that relates towards an energy system because chaos and disorder and unusable energy take on a new meaning below -457.87 °F where the situation is reversed and it is The Universe that has all the 'Unusable Energy' in its realm that is considered its own conserved energy where anything we apply from here breaks those systems down in a reverse order.

"Marconi Invention" stolen from Tesla
What's possible there is impossible here and vice versa and it is the job of Human Beings to find ways to bridge these two gaps Universes and not make god-like, deterministic, philosophical and exploitative demons sermons about low temperature physics. There is much to learn here, but everything gets interrupted all the time to apply for patents every 5 minutes. As many lobbyists as there are in congress, they have an equal number of "people" staying at the patent office, as agents, so they can get to the counter first so their boss can be the proud owner of something that won't be useful for 500 years from now and sit on that patent forever because they get renewed every 17 years or so just like copyrights because corporations are immortal legal persons and their "immortal rights" must be protected. Corporate lawyers create gods.

The Thames, London, during 17th Century mini ice age.
So what begins as a story about what occurred during the Mini Ice Age ends with Ultra Cold physics today where, in a way, we find ourselves in worse situation because there is no cure for immaturity and is a property that we still cannot change regardless of what kind of pressure we apply. To find a cure we must go back to the beginning where science and religion was a matter of determining equilibrium and conservation in Nature in/with all things which immediately opened so many doors, we are still counting them. Today, this means learning and applying The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics and making it part of your very being in everything and whatever is your extension.

When you invite The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics into your being you can become impervious to any influences derived from the consumer-grade First and Second laws of Thermodynamics, backward organized religion or any intellectual stercus tauri and instead you control them or can deal with them in an appropriate manner. You will have the resources of Three systems or more to solve any problems or create anything you want, where with the others there are only Two and they are tightly controlled by people you don't even know or will ever meet in your entire life. Here, we can even rehabilitate Augustine and say like him: "Have faith in A = C of the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamic and then you will understand it" because the information you need will spontaneously appear when you need it if you move around because you are unique. I can only describe general principles and you take them to where you want to be. Beauty and miracles are always all around us, all the time, and are not some packaged or regimented thing.

Ptolemy's system was only a laboratory device to help him calculate the positions of the planets and it still works very well today for stargazing, which today would be fun to amuse your friends with, but it is certainly not a model of the Universe and Ptolemy knew this and for him it was only a tool, just like perpetual motion machines were, as anyone with a library card in those days would know by reading a couple of scrolls. Pimp-like businessmen, fear mongers, thinkers, theologians, intellectuals, popularizers and philosophers, who appropriate or take advantage of the productivity and creativity of other's without producing anything themselves, take these devices like Ptolemy's and create opportunities for themselves and disadvantages for others just like Marconi who stole Tesla's patents for wireless communications which took years to rectify because the pimps were helping Marconi and made sure he had those kinds of lawyers that worked for pimps and tied up things for decades. In the end everybody only gets .ooo1% of the invention's true potential, value and vision and everybody must wait centuries for "improvements" that truly show their real potential, simply because greedy and selfish people want to control the market completely. It is fitting and poetic that these things have always been used to communicate 99% drivel and nonsense as the way it is done by media and social networks.
I don't care what people believe now, I'm interested in what they are trying to make people believe in the future which they are putting into young people's minds now, through the media and with educational systems and it does not look good.

They stopped teaching compulsory music 40 years ago along with Latin, which is why everyone is illiterate musically and can't spell anything in language. I know this because I was there. Later they dropped geography and replaced math with 'new math' which has created horrible consequences I won't begin to describe here. I wonder what they are teaching young people today because we don't understand each other were once, every generation understood each other. This division of the family benefits governments and private enterprise in their manigances and then they license and create social networks. I ask those that use these things: Unless we are looking for a brief personal sexual encounter, what are you socializing with? People take these things too seriously where their lives revolve around things like Facebook and that's their prime source of information.

We may as well have Omnicom Group to write the new English dictionary and dispense with any and all pretexts or pretense as this is already occurring with search engines where everything that is sold are adopting names that are subjects that belong to Nature, right down to rock/pop bands which is why they are all lousy since they can't even come up with an original name for themselves and that from Nature especially in things that have nothing to do with music. So, never mind actually writing original arrangements especially where sampling older material, looping effects, whining, complaining, screeching, grunting and screaming are now considered creativity and now we even have television shows of people watching television. Hell is other people and we are sinking deeper into it and none of this has to do with entropy.

Humans Need Not Apply

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Time: 15:00 of your time.

In the Hyperreality film, S1m0ne (2002) where now books and documentaries on anything seem to be written by machines, but these guys that run these machines are no Viktor Taransky either because there are many interesting "errors" in them that would be impossible to prevent anyway because of the way machines "see" things and work their logic connections that cannot be programmed or "JavaScripted" away and in this case it uses a kind of gobbledygook procedure within a standardized plot scenario.

Forget the examples of the Thermoscope or the Absorption Refrigerator being quantum mechanical, — big deal. Life itself is quantum mechanical because there are reasons we and all other life do things that cannot be calculated, explained or programmed in classical physics and other philosophies that follow classical reasoning. Where applied to life and in any form of medical discipline, or studies in biology and psychology that insists on being considered "scientific", and through this claim to be accurate in any of their statements or findings; these types still have a lot to learn because thoughts, ideas and all biological processes are quantum mechanical too.

Only an artist, or someone with artistic training, or art history can acknowledge this where we then write strange articles like this where an idea or a new emotion suddenly "pops" out of nowhere and we thank Nature or the Muses. This also explains why the prequel in Thermodynamics and Entropy comes after the sequel— Forget the actual Fractal Feature Version which we are seeing more and more of now and has never existed in all the history of literature. Homer's 'Iliad' came before the 'Odyssey'. This includes other books and movies that no true artist or writer would ever produce, but that I discuss elsewhere ('Rhetoric'), where I show various examples in how only machines can do this.

Excerpt from S1m0ne (2002)
Al Pacino says it, when he declares in his role as 'Viktor Taransky' in 'S1m0ne': "The only truth is the Work". Entropy is energy that permeates everything that can possibly exist including thought and even imagined thought in your head. Regardless of whether your measuring it as part of the electro-chemical impulses in a brain or if you simply believe that thought is something more or less than the sum of its parts; it makes no difference. If everything suddenly disappeared except for one small thing (Σ) it would cool down to -454.77 °F (the ambient temperature of the Universe).
Now some supernatural entity comes along and tries to make Σ colder, down to -458.XX °F with some experimental ray. Σ would later warm-up back to -454.77 °F when the supernatural entity left and removed its supernatural machinery. This we know because it is "Inevitable" not "Possible or Probable" because Mr. Supernatural is a system and exists in a system, so unless he has infinite energy and infinite time to do this job; he can't.

More importantly, this also means that Nature reserves the right to put things back the way It likes them and It never forgets where things were/are/will be. So here again we see that entropy does do something and it is perfectly conceivable to create engines that run on this Principle of Reverse Thermal Equilibrium (which would be just as wasteful) where it would be only fun.

So what are scientists talking about when they discuss entropy where because of it, things will always go back to where they were? If we just happen to be in the way when something like this is happening, well, —it's just too bad, eh? Try to stop it.
Entropy establishes the transitive nature of heat and therefore all things.

If we "see" chaos or disorder at the "end" of any thermodynamic cycle we must remember that the original raw material and raw energy from its original open system was very organized and appears disordered to us because the newly created garbage, pollution, chaos and disorder is still in a closed system and we live in that, where if our technology was open-system based there would never be entropy beyond what Nature created for itself. Our problem is that our thinking is too small.

Pascal's triangle.
We discover, now, that there is no hot or cold, but hot and cold as it is the same thing with good or bad; there is only good and bad.

Religion, politics and then later science divides and separates things inappropriatelly, where thermodynamics says, all systems flow and work together. If when they are taken apart, for any reason, the parts must be reasssembled back together again.

If this were not so, then the laws of probability would be completely different and would always favor only one thing or the other.
Further, we give these divided things attributes and qualities, where because of that we create and impose a Second Law of Thermodynamics which attempts to replace or resemble reality and all are guilty both high and low of creating this pretend and unsustainable universe for both good and bad reasons regarding any subject.

We see this in the wave too, where its transitive nature shows a compression-decompression cycle so it would be impossible for a god to say anything is good or bad, but only an individual mortal living entity can do that and make those decisions while in movement perceiving the universe all around, —just like when driving a car.

Click or Tap for Part 14 of Extreme Cold: 'Beyond Absolute Zero'

GP duBerger

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A History and Monologue on Thermodynamics